JLPT N4 Grammar (tadoushi & jidoushi)

Meaning

Transitive & Intransitive Verbs

How to use

see rules below
tadoushi&jidoushi 他動詞&自動詞 たどうし&じどうし jlpt n4 grammar meaning 文法 例文 japanese flashcards

Learn Japanese grammar: 【たどうし】(tadoushi) & 【じどうし】( jidoushi). Meaning: transitive & intransitive verbs.

In this lesson, I will explain what is the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs in Japanese.

Transitive Verbs – 他動詞

Transitive verbs 他動詞 (tadoushi) are verbs indicating personal action of changing something. The focus is on who did the action.

Pattern:
Person は/が Object を Verb

Example A) 閉める (shimeru) – to close/shut

tanaka san wa doa o shimemashita.

Tanaka-san closed the door.

Intransitive verbs 自動詞 (jidoushi) are verbs indicating movement of something. The focus is on the movement itself and it does not matter who did the movement.

Pattern:
Noun が/は Verb

Example B) 閉まる (shimaru) – to be closed/shut

doa ga shimarimashita.

The door closed.

Examples of Transitive & Intransitive Verbs

Example 1 – 入れる VS 入る

Transitive verb: 入れる (ireru) – to put inside

watashi wa inu o heya ni iremashita.

I brought the dog into the room.

Intransitive verb: 入る (hairu) – to enter

inu ga heya ni hairimashita.

The dog entered the room.


Transitive verb: 始める (hajimeru) – to start

sensei wa jugyou o hajimemashita.

The teacher started the class.

Intransitive verb: はじまる (hajimaru) – to start

jugyou ga hajimarimashita.

The class has started.


Example 3 – 出す VS 出る

Transitive verb: 出す (dasu) – to take out

watashi wa inu o soto ni dashimashita.

I took the dog outside.

Intransitive verb: 出る (deru) – to go out

inu ga soto ni demashita.

The dog went outside.

Unfortunately there are no set rules for differentiating between transitive and intransitive Japanese verbs. There are some “inconsistent” patterns, but the best thing to do is just memorize them.

Here are some lists of verbs you’ll need to know in order to pass the JLPT.


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