JLPT N5 Grammar (te aru)


is/has been done (resulting state)

How to use

Verb (て form)ある
te aru てある jlpt n5 grammar meaning 文法 例文 japanese flashcards

Learn Japanese grammar: (te aru). Meaning: is/has been done (resulting state).

This is used when something is intentionally done and you can see the resulting state of that action. It is similar to using past tense form, but different in that it places emphasis on the action being done intentionally and the end result still being visible.

How to conjugate (te aru)

This grammar point requires you convert the verb to て-form. After you do that, all you do is add ある at the end. In case you need it, here is a reminder on how to conjugate て-form. If not, skip ahead to the examples.

EndingDictionaryChanges to...て form
Example 1) VS

This example will focus on the difference between using past form and (te aru) form.

1.1) Using 作った

ashita no bentou wa mou tsukutta.

I (have) already made tomorrow’s bento (lunch).

1.2) Using 作ってある

ashita no bentou wa mou tsukutte aru.

Tomorrow’s bento (lunch) has been prepared already.

At first glance, these sentences may seem very similar in meaning, but there are some key differences you should be aware of.

Example 1.1 simply says that the task was done. Example 1.2 does that as well, but also expresses that the task was done intentionally and focuses on the result of the action. In this case, that the bento lunch has been prepared and is ready.

Some more examples

Example 2)

doa ga akete aru.

The door has been left open (intentionally).

In this case, it’s a bit more clear that the focus is on the end result. Not on the action of opening the door, but that the door has been left open.

Example 3) てあった (te atta) past tense

hozon shite atta fairu ga kiete shimatta.

The file I had saved (prepared) was deleted.

This case focuses on the preparation that was done; the file was already saved and prepared.

Extra Study Notes

In summary, (te aru) is used to show a task that was completed with focus on:

  • The task was done intentionally (maybe for preparation)
  • The resulting state from having done the action (e.g. the window was left open)

This grammar can ONLY be used with transitive verbs. The form will almost always look like this:

Subject + (が / は / を) + transitive verb +

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- Example Sentences

Each example sentence includes a Japanese hint, the romaji reading, and the English translation.

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Example #1

koko ni wa watashi no namae ga kaite arimasu.
My name is written here.
Example #2

doa ga wazato akete aru.
The door has been left intentionally opened.
Example #3

shukudai wa mou yatte arimasu.
I have already finished my homework.
Example #4

yoru ni wa gakkou no iriguchi ga shimete aru.
At night, the school entrance is closed.
Example #5

koko ni nante kaite aru no?
What is written here?
Example #6

ryouri ga tsukutte aru kara, kyou wa ie de taberu.
I've already made some food, so today I will eat at home.
Example #7

tenisu o shiyou. juuji sanjuu pun ni kooto o yoyaku shite aru kara.
Let's play tennis. I've booked a court for 10:30.
Example #8

sudeni itte aru you ni, kore mo anata no shigoto no uchi da.
This is also part of your work, as I told you before.

Vocabulary List

作るつくるto make
弁当べんとうlunch box
開けるあけるto open (transitive)
保存ほぞんsave; preserve
消えるきえるto erase; delete (transitive)
閉めるしめるto close (transitive)
書いてあるかいてあるis written

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JLPT N5 vocabulary list

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