Learn JLPT N4 Grammar (ba)


if… then (conditional)

How to use

special formatting rules
see below

Learn Japanese grammar: (ba). Meaning: if… then (conditional).

  • This grammar is a type of conditional form
  • Meaning if [A], then [B].
  • For other conditional formations, see the related grammar section.

Conditional rules for (ba)?

There are some special format rules for this grammar, which I will explain now with some examples before moving on to our main example sentences.


  • Use dictionary form.
  • Change the ending from “u” to an “e”.
  • Add ば at the end.

う Verb – Example

= iku = to go
changes to
= ikeba = if (you) go

る Verb – Example

= taberu = to eat
changes to
= tabereba = if (you) eat

Special Verb – Example

= kuru = to come
changes to
= kureba = if (you) come

Special Verb 2 – Example

= suru = to do
changes to
= sureba = if (you) do

Verb (Negative Form)

  • Use dictionary negative form.
  • Change the ending ( i) to (nakereba).

= ikanai = to not go
changes to
= ikanakereba = if (you) do not go

い Adjective

  • Change the ending ( i) to (kereba).

= ookii = big
changes to
= ookikereba = if big

い Adjective (Negative)

  • The rules are the same, change the ending ( i) to (kunakereba).

= ookikunai = not big
changes to
= ookikunakereba = if not big

な Adjective

  • At the end, add either of the two.
    • (naraba)
    • (de areba)

= benri = convenient
changes to
= benri naraba = if convenient
= benri deareba = if convenient

な Adjective (Negative)

  • At the end, add either of the two.
    • (janakereba) (more casual)
    • (de nakereba)

= benri = convenient
changes to
= benri janakereba = if not convenient
= benri denakereba = if not convenient


  • Same as な-adjective
  • At the end, add either of the two.
    • (naraba)
    • (de areba)

= nihonjin = Japanese
changes to
= nihonjin naraba = if Japanese
= nihonjin deareba = if Japanese

Noun (Negative)

  • Same as な-adjective (negative)
  • At the end, add either of the two.
    • (janakereba) (more casual)
    • (de nakereba)

= nihonjin = Japanese
changes to
= nihonjin janakereba = if not Japanese
= nihonjin denakereba = if not Japanese

How to use (ba)

The hard part is behind us!

Once you get used to the conjugation forms, (ba) is very simple and easy Japanese grammar to use!

[A] [B]

If condition [A] is met, then [B] will happen.

Let’s look at some example sentences below!

JLPT grammar ば (ba)  - Learn Japanese

- Example Sentences

Each example sentence includes a Japanese hint, the romaji reading, and the English translation.

Click the below red button to toggle off and and on all of the hints, and you can click on the buttons individually to show only the ones you want to see.

Example #1

kono botan o oseba, doa ga hirakimasu.
If you push this button, the door will open.
Example #2

anata ga ikeba, watashi mo iku yo.
If you go, then I'm going too!
Example #3

ima sugu shuppatsu sureba maiau deshou.
If you leave right away, you'll still make it in time!
Example #4

mainichi renshuu wo sureba, jouzu ni naru yo.
If you practice everyday, you're going to improve!
Example #5

suushuukan mo sureba, minna wasureru yo.
They’ll all forget this in a few weeks.
Example #6

umi ni ikeba dare datte mizugi o kiru wa.
Everyone wears a bathing suit at the beach.
Example #7

amerika taishikan he ikitaindesuga, dou ikeba ii desuka?
I want to go to the American embassy, do you know how to get there from here?

Vocabulary List

押すおすto push; to press
開くひらくto open
出発しゅっぱつto depart
間に合うまにあうto make it in time
数週間すうしゅうかんa few weeks
忘れるわすれるto forget
水着みずぎswim suit
着るきるto wear
大使館たいしかんembassy; consulate

Vocabulary items are displayed based on the order they appear in the grammar lesson.

View all JLPT N4 Vocabulary Lessons

JLPT N4 vocabulary list

View all JLPT N4 Grammar Lessons

JLPT N4 grammar list

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