JLPT N5 Grammar Lesson (te aru)

jlpt N5 grammar てある tearu flashcard meaning

Meaning ()

is/has been done (resulting state)

Level: JLPT N5

Category: Japanese Grammar Lessons

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How to use ()

Verb (て form) ある
あった
あります
ありました

Grammar Study Notes ()

Learn Japanese grammar: (te aru) is used when something is intentionally done and you can see the resulting state of that action.

jlpt sensei Tomoko teaching てある (tearu) grammar

It is similar to using past tense form, but different in that it places emphasis on the action being done intentionally and the end result still being visible. This is easier to understand with examples, but first let’s look at the formation.

How to conjugate (te aru)

This grammar point requires you convert the verb to て-form. After you do that, all you do is add ある at the end. In case you need it, here is a reminder on how to conjugate て-form. If not, skip ahead to the examples.

Ending Dictionary Changes to... て form
Example 1) VS

This example will focus on the difference between using past form and (te aru) form.

1.1) Using

ashita no bentou wa mou tsukutta.

I (have) already made tomorrow’s bento (lunch).

1.2) Using

ashita no bentou wa mou tsukutte aru.

Tomorrow’s bento (lunch) has been prepared already.

At first glance, these sentences may seem very similar in meaning, but there are some key differences you should be aware of.

Example 1.1 simply says that the task was done. Example 1.2 does that as well, but also expresses that the task was done intentionally and focuses on the result of the action. In this case, that the bento lunch has been prepared and is ready.

Some more examples

Example 2)

doa ga akete aru.

The door has been left open (intentionally).

In this case, it’s a bit more clear that the focus is on the end result. Not on the action of opening the door, but that the door has been left open.

Example 3) (te atta) past tense

hozon shite atta fairu ga kiete shimatta.

The file I had saved (prepared) was deleted.

This case focuses on the preparation that was done; the file was already saved and prepared.


Extra Study Notes

In summary, (te aru) is used to show a task that was completed with focus on:

  • The task was done intentionally (maybe for preparation)
  • The resulting state from having done the action (e.g. the window was left open)

This grammar can ONLY be used with transitive verbs. The form will almost always look like this:

Subject + (が / は / を) + transitive verb + てある

Related Grammar Lessons

Directly related

– ongoing action or current state

Difference between てある and ている (lesson coming soon)

Somewhat related

– there is; is (non-living things)

there is; is (living things)

Example Sentences ()

Example sentences are separated so you can focus on one at a time. Click the example number to change to a new example sentence. Each sentence includes a Japanese hint, romaji reading, and English translation.

宿題はもうやってあります

もうやった

shukudai wa mou yatte arimasu.

My homework has already been finished. (focus on the fact that the homework is done)

夜には学校の入り口が閉めてある

閉める

yoru ni wa gakkou no iriguchi ga shimete aru.

At night, the school entrance is closed.

ここに何て書いてありますか?

何がかいてある?

koko ni nante kaite arimasu ka?

What is written (has been wrote) here?

Vocabulary List ()

Kanji 漢字Kana 仮名English 英語
作る つくる to make
明日 あした tomorrow
弁当 べんとう lunch box
開ける あける to open (transitive)
保存 ほぞん save; preserve
ファイル ふぁいる file
消える きえる to erase; delete (transitive)
宿題 しゅくだい homework
もう already
よる night
学校 がっこう school
入り口 いりぐち entrance
閉める しめる to close (transitive)
ここ here
何て なんて what
書いてある かいてある is written

Vocabulary items are displayed based on the order they appear in the grammar lesson.

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